More String Methods
Before we do more elaborate things with strings, some more string methods will be helpful. Be sure you are familiar with the earlier discussion of strings in Basic String Operations.
Play with the new string methods in csharp!
This variation of
IndexOf has a second parameter:
int IndexOf(string target, int start)
Returns the index of the beginning of the first occurrence of the string
targetin this string object, starting at index
startor after. Returns -1 if
targetis not found. Example:
csharp> string state = "Mississippi"; csharp> print("01234567890\n"+state) // to see indices 01234567890 Mississippi csharp> state.IndexOf("is", 0); // same as state.IndexOf("is"); 1 csharp> state.IndexOf("is", 2); 4 csharp> state.IndexOf("is", 5); -1 csharp> state.IndexOf("i", 5); 7
Returns a string formed from this string object, but with leading and trailing whitespace removed. Example:
csharp> string s = "\n 123 "; csharp> "#" + s + "#"; # 123 # csharp> "#" + s.Trim() + "#"; #123#
string Replace(string target, string replacement)
Returns a string formed from this string by replacing all occurrences of the substring
csharp> string s = "This is it!"; csharp> s.Replace(" ", "/"); "This/is/it!" csharp> s.Replace("is", "at"); "That at it!" csharp> "oooooh".Replace("oo", "ah"); "ahahoh"
bool StartsWith(string prefix)
trueif this string object starts with string
csharp> "-123".StartsWith("-"); true csharp> "downstairs".StartsWith("down"); true csharp> "1 - 2 - 3".StartsWith("-"); false
bool EndsWith(string suffix)
trueif this string object ends with string
csharp> "-123".EndsWith("-"); false csharp> "downstairs".EndsWith("airs"); true csharp> "downstairs".EndsWith("air"); false
Count Repetitions in a String Exercise
Write a program
test_count_rep.cs, with a Main testing method,
that tests a function with the following heading:
// Return the number of separate repetitions of target in s. static int CountRep(string s, string target)
For example here is what
CountRep( "Mississippi", target)
would return with various values for
Assume each repetition is completely separate, so
CountRep("Wheee!", "ee") returns 1. The last
two e’s do not count, since the middle e is already
used in the match of the first two e’s.
Safer PromptInt and PromptDouble Exercise
Save the example safe_number_input_stub/safe_number_input.cs in a project of your own.
The idea is to write safe versions of the utility functions PromptInt and PromptDouble (which can then be used in further places like PromptIntInRange).
Be sure you are familiar with Safe Whole Number Input Exercise,
and the development of its
A legal whole number string consists entirely of digits. We have
already written example
IsDigits to identify a string for a
The improvements to PromptInt and PromptDouble are
very similar and straightforward if you have developed the two main
Boolean support functions,
A complicating issue with integer and decimal strings is that they may include parts other than digits. An integer may start with a minus sign. A decimal number can also contain a decimal point in an appropriate place. The suggestion is to confirm that these other characters appear in legal places, remove them, and see that what is left is digits. The recently introduced string methods should help….
Using the ideas above,
develop the functions in order and test after each one:
IsDecimalString, and revise
Be sure to test carefully. Not only confirm that all
appropriate strings return
Also be sure to test that you return
for all sorts of bad strings.
There is still one issue with
IsIntString not considered yet: see
the next exercise for the final improvement.
Hopefully you learned something from writing the earlier PromptWhole. Probably it is not worth keeping in our utility library any longer, since we have the more general and safe PromptInt, and we can restrict to many ranges with PromptIntInRange.
We will arrange for these functions to be a library class later. For now just develop and test them in this one class.
Safest PromptInt Exercise
With the suggestions so far the in the previous exercise,
IsIntString will catch a strange stray character, and be
sure that the string for an integer is entered, but an
not an arbitrary integer: it has limited range, between
int.MinValue = -2147483648 and
int.MaxValue = 2147483647.
IsIntString function of the previous
exercise so that it checks that the result is in range, too, allowing
the PromptInt function to be totally reliable.
There is a problem: your current version of IsIntString is likely
to accept a string like
"9876543210", and you cannot convert it to an
int to do the comparison to see that it is in fact
too large for an
int! Catch 22?
There is an alternate approach involving comparing strings, not numbers.
There is a string instance method:
public int CompareTo(string t)
It does roughly lexicographical string comparisons, so
s.CompareTo(t) <= 0
is true when s “comes before” t or is equal to t. This works with alphabetizing letter strings: “at” comes before “ate” which comes before “attention” which comes before “eat”. It also works with digit strings of the same length to give the same relationship as the corresponding numbers:
"123456890".CompareTo("2147483647") <= 0
is true, and
"9876543210".CompareTo("2147483647") <= 0
This idea can be leveraged into a completely reliable version of IsIntString. (With this approach you could also create an IsLongString very similarly, but we skip it since it teaches you nothing new.)
The idea of a
CompareTo method is much more general
and is used much later in Rationals Revisited.